History of rakhi or rakshabandhan
||Raksha Bandhan - the Indian festival of tying the knot of amity,
brotherhood and long life, is a symbol of seeking divine bliss. Not for the 'self'. But
for man on whose wrist the thread is tied. 'Raksha' is the word for protection. 'Bandhan'
is the bond. So it signifies the bond of protection. The protection is from the dark hands
of the evils and against all perils. The protection that connotates - not just physical,
but the spiritual one as well.
The origin and the legends:
The festival nurtures a rich heritage of legendary traditions, some rooted back to the
ages of the great epics. In the Hindu tradition the Rakshaa has indeed assumed all aspects
of protection of the forces of righteousness from the forces of evil.
According to the Mahabharata, Yudhishthira, the eldest of the Pancha Pandyava (the five
brothers belonging to the family of king Pandu), asked Sri Krishna, an incarnation of lord
Vishnu, how best he could guard himself against impending evils and catastrophes in the
coming year. Krishna advised him to observe the Rakshaa Ceremony. He also narrated an old
incident to show how potent the Rakshaa is. It went like this.
Once, Indra, the king of heaven was confronted by the demon king - the Daitya-raaja - in a
long-drawn battle. At one stage, the Daitya-raaja got better of Indra and drove him into
wilderness. Indra, humbled and crest-fallen, sought the advice of Brihaspati, the Guru of
Gods. The Guru told him to bide his time, prepare himself and then take on the mighty
demon. He also indicated that the auspicious moment for sallying forth was the Shraavana
Poornima. On that day, Shachee Devi, the wife of Indra, accompanied by Brihaspati tied
Raakhi around Indra's right-wrist. Indra then advanced against the Daitya-raaja,
vanquished him and reestablished his sovereignty.
This is how Raksha Bandhan came into being in the ages of old Hindu mythology and has
transcended into the modern ages acquiring more of new and modified customs with
The bond beyond:
Though in principle raksha bandhan is an observance between biological siblings of the
opposite sex, the legends and history of India are rife in stories where a woman has tied
the knot of Raakhi to a stranger man.
A story is told of Alexander's wife approaching his mighty Hindu adversary Porus and tying
Raakhi on his hand, seeking assurance from him for saving the life of her husband on the
battlefield. And the great Hindu king, in the true traditional Kshatriya (those who
belonged to the brave warrior class) style, responded; and as the legend goes, when Porus
raised his hand to deliver a mortal blow to Alexander, he saw the Raakhi on his own hand
and restrained from striking.
More poignant instance is the story of the princess of a small Rajput (those who belong to
the state of Rajasthan) clan. It glorified the spell that the Raakhi had cast even on
people of alien faiths. The princess sent a Raakhi to the Moghul Emperor Humayun to save
her honor from the onslaught of the Gujarat Sultan who seized her kingdom. The emperor,
then engaged in an expedition against Bengal, turned back and hastened to the rescue of
his Raakhi-sister. But, alas, to his utmost sorrow, he found that the kingdom had already
been perished by the invador and the princess had committed 'Jauhaar', i.e., leaped into
the burning flames to save her honor.
The Nobel laureate poet Rabindranath Tagore used the occasion of the Raksha Bandhan as a
community festival to spread the nationalist spirit among people from different ethnic
backgrounds. Thus siblings or not, the spirit of the thread of brotherhood and chaste love
extends far beyond the biological association. Today it's common to see females tying a
rakhi around the wrist of boys and men without sisters. Even a number of women may tie the
rakhi around the Prime Minister's wrist (unless the Prime Minister be a woman), and
similarly soldiers can expect to have women tie rakhis around their wrists. Thus Raakhi
has become a social recognition of a man acquiring a sister or the other way round. Sister
or brother in every respect, except in biological fact. And this is what the spirit of
Raksha Bandhan today has turned out to be. A symbol of universal brotherhood and goodwill.
So if you are a sensible girl with an inclination of seeking male friends yet not
intending to tie the nuptial knot, this knot of brotherhood is an excellent idea to be
This is how the society can live and prosper amidst all kinds of challenges either from
within or without. Especially, various types of internal stresses and strains which are
generated in the body-politic of a nation because of ever-changing economic, political and
other factors can be overcome only on the strength of this inner flow of mutual affection
So come and exploit the auspicious occasion to recharge your sense and sensibility towards
the society at large with the true spirit of service and sacrifice. For it is where lies
spiritual fulfillment of human life.